Tag Archives: killer whales

“He had a good life” – the story of a magnificent orca, by Ken Balcomb

L41.    Photo credit: Center for Whale Research – WhaleResearch.com

By Ken Balcomb, Founder and Senior Scientist, Center for Whale Research

“My first acquaintance with the Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW) we designated L41 was in 1977, the year after we began the annual Orca Survey of this population that continues to this day. His mother was L11, who was one of nine females to produce new babies that year following the cessation of captures in 1976. We watched the energetic young male baby as he grew up, and we had great hopes that he and his companions would fill in the youthful cohorts of the population that had been decimated by captures between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s.

L41 last seen by the Center for Whale Research on August 11, 2019 (Encounter #51). Photo by Mark Malleson, Center for Whale Research

L41, with an adoption name Mega, traveled with his mom and sisters in a subgroup of L pod that became known as the L12s, named after his presumed grandmother, who was the likely mother of L11. It should be noted that the alpha-numeric designations are not in the birth order sequence in the early years of the Orca Survey – because nobody knew the population composition prior to our study. The whales were numbered in those early years in the order that they were first seen, and it was only after we had all of them identified in 1976 that subsequent new babies received the next sequential alpha-numeric designation for identification. L41 was among the first to receive a designation that identified him as a member of the new known-age youth cohort of the SRKW population.

L41 with L124 on January 11, 2019 (Encounter #2). Photo by Dave Ellifrit, Center for Whale Research.

When he reached social maturity in his early twenties around 1997, L41 began to father babies. And, he became the champion male breeder in the SRKW population with fourteen known offspring that survive to this day in all three pods. Only J1, with the fathering of eleven living offspring in the SRKW community, has done as much to increase the population. A very few other males have contributed one or two offspring in this population.

L41 with L25. Photo by Dave Ellifrit, Center for Whale Research.

We will greatly miss L41 as an important breeder and as a prominent indicator of the L12 subgroup that now rarely ventures into the Salish Sea. In 2019, we only saw the L12s twice – once on January 11 in the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca, and once on August 11 off Carmanah Point Lighthouse on the southwest coast of Vancouver Island. It will be extremely difficult to monitor the demographic vigor of the L12s if they do not come into the study area, and if this indicator male is not present. We are hopeful that L41 is alive somewhere and returns to the subgroup, but he did live to a ripe old age and fathered more baby whales than any other whale in the community.

He had a good life.

Orcas
Unidentified orca.                                                                                                 Photo credit – Dale Mitchell, Eagle Wind Tours

 

75 beluga whales to get a boat ride to freedom in Russia

Captive belugas held in icy pens last winter are headed to freedom.
The All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography” (VNIRO) has made arrangements to release the last of the nearly 100 belugas and 10 killer whales into the wild after their capture was found to be illegal. While the previous releases involved long transport by container trucks and barges, weather conditions have caused the fisheries service to find a different path to freedom for the remaining whales.

 

[Background information can be found here, and updates on the condition of the captive orcas and belugas now living in the wild can be found here].

 

September 26, 2019

BELUGA WHALES WILL TRAVEL BY SEA

The research vessel VNIRO will take on board a group of belugas from Srednyaya Bay.

Animals are planned to be delivered to the Sakhalin Gulf to the coast of the Khabarovsk Territory in the area where beluga whales and killer whales were previously released as part of re-adaptation and release of marine mammals into the natural environment. The road from the bay to the place of release will take about three days.
The change in the method of transportation and release of animals was caused by the flood on the Amur River, the deterioration of roads in the Khabarovsk Territory due to heavy rains and the closure of a number of sections after flooding, which did not allow transportation according to the established scheme “motor transport / barge / motor vehicle”. Because of this, the beginning of the next operation to release animals had to be constantly postponed.
“Science has already had successful experience in releasing animals from a vessel,” said Alexey Baitalyuk, deputy director of the All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, head of the Pacific branch of VNIRO. – We expect that the whole process will be successful and no weather conditions will hinder us. Transportation of animals will begin in the very near future. ”
Special baths have been prepared for belugas, in which they will feel comfortable throughout the entire route. The animals will be accompanied by specialists from the Pacific branch of VNIRO and veterinarians who will monitor their health.
VNIRO Press Service

Satellite tracks of two of the other freed belugas 9 Sept 2019, in the region where the remaining whales will be released.

 
Image credit: VNIRO

A second freed captive orca has found her family; updates on the other released Russian whales

Mixed news on the young captive orcas who were released back into the wild in Russia – while a second released orca appears to be traveling with wild killer whales, the group of four seems to have disbanded somewhat. Two of the released belugas are in an area with wild whales.

Zina with wild orcas 9 Sept 2019. Photo Credit: VNIRO

On the plus side, scientists of the All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) and the Institute of Ecology and Evolution Severtsov Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) have determined that a second released captive orca is now traveling with wild whales.  From VNIRO:

During monitoring conducted on catamarans in the Shantar Islands, scientists observed a family of wild killer whales off the coast of the South Shantar archipelago. The group had at least 14 killer whales, which they managed to photograph. After a careful analysis of the photographs and their comparison with the photograph and description of animals from Srednyaya Bay, it was noted that one of the killer whales in the group has characteristic scars of the selected mark. Individual signs made it possible to identify this killer whale as Zina, released in the second installment on August 6. The animal got rid of the [satellite tag] that it was set upon release.
“Some killer whales from the wild family in which Zina was met were previously identified, included in photo catalogs and there is biological information on them,” said Vyacheslav Bizikov, deputy director for research at VNIRO. “They are classified as a carnivorous ecotype.”

The first orca who was accepted by a group of wild whales, a young female named Vasilievna, was documented hunting and sharing food with them on August 20th.
With only tracking data, it’s difficult to assess the situation of the group of four (Alexandra, Tikhon, Zoya, and Gayka) who reportedly stayed together for 10 days. The young male, Tikhon, has traveled south either alone or in the company of wild whales. The three females remain in the same general area either together, or within an easy day’s travel distance (approximately 50 miles (80 km) from each other).
Alexandra’s path (green dot with the number 3) coincides with another orca’s track so they may have traveled together at the last location on September 7th.
Because visual documentation hasn’t been reported, all we know for certain is that they are near each other in the same area as wild orcas and appear to be thriving. But that alone is good news!

According to the latest data from satellite tags, killer whales from the third issue of Zoya, Tikhon and Gadget, as well as the younger female Alexander from the second issue, who joined them, moved together for about 10 days. Then the group broke up and now three females Zoya, Gadget and Alexander are located near the island of Feklistov of the Shantar archipelago, the male Tikhon went to the Tugursky Bay.
Killer whales Kharya and Forest, having traveled from Cape Perovsky past Sakhalin Island to the open sea, returned to Sakhalin Gulf.

Forest and Kharya location 9 Sept 2019. Image Credit: VNIRO

Little has been reported on the 12 belugas who were released, but tracking data shows that at least two of them are in the same area as Tikhon:

Two belugas from the fourth issue with [tags] are also located in the Sakhalin Gulf. In this area, scientists and fishermen noted the appearance of wild killer whales and beluga whales. (Press – Service VNIRO).

Location of two belugas 9 Sept 2019.  Image Credit: VNIRO

4 released captive orcas in Russia are hunting together, including little Alexandra

It looks as though Alexandra, the youngest killer whale to be released, has joined three of the other freed orcas in the Shantar Islands area of the Sea of Okhotsk.

Of the 10 killer whales who were returned to the sea where they had been captured, only Alexandra needed initial support following her release.
She had become separated from the other two orcas in her group (Vitas and Nut) and wound up hanging around fishing boats where she was fed. Then she headed over a hundred miles to the north, where she continued to pluck the occasional fish from nets and appeared to hunt successfully on her own.
But what great news; Alexandra has returned south and joined up with Tikhon, Zoya, and Gadget who were released a few weeks after her. If she stays with them, her chances of survival are as high as the others.

Map of locations
Alexandra, Tikhon, Zoya, and Gadget together in the Shantar Islands (Sea of Okhotsk) Image Credit: VNIRO

It’s inspiring to follow these intelligent animals as they adjust to life back in the wild – studies of wild orca populations have shown that their cultures and dialects vary and at this point, we don’t know how those factors play into which whales remain together. Gender, age, personality, food abundance, locating family members, and changing ocean conditions may also contribute to the ultimate success of each whale.
Genetic tests showed that these are mammal-eating type orcas…yet they had been fed fish while they were in captivity. Will they expand their dietary preferences now? Or go back to eating the seals and sea lions of the region exclusively? The winter conditions in that region are challenging, and it is most likely that they will select the more calorie rich mammals, but a lot depends on what they can find.
One of the first released orcas, Vasilyevna, has found a place in a group of wild whales, where she was observed hunting seals and food sharing with others. She was released with Lyokha, but his satellite tag stopped working and there are no reports on his location.
There are no updates as yet on Forest and Kharya, the last to be released.

Freed captive orca photographed with a group of wild whales in Russia; hunting and sharing food

Freed captive orca Vasilievna is now hunting and food sharing with a group of wild whales.  She is on the far right, identifiable by her tag.

How often we wake up to good news these days is anyone’s guess, but when that news involves a project that required people to put aside political beliefs, to work with groups who opposed each other in fundamental attitudes about cherished wildlife, to find funding…this success is stunning. At least one of the freed killer whales in Russia has been accepted into a wild group.
It means that captive orcas can be released back into the wild and successfully find their families (or at least into a group that will accept them).
And hopefully, it means that there is as much public support to see these kinds of reparations to nature as there is to see the babies taken to captivity for our amusement.
A huge amount of work has gone on behind the scenes by people who may never be known; so congratulations to you too. And to those who gave financially, and to the public worldwide for caring.
The trials of adjustment aren’t over for the whales (more on that later) but whatever the final outcome, this tremendous effort has shown the world that it can be done.
From The All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO):

LOCATION OF KILLER WHALES AND BELUGA WHALES ON AUGUST 29

According to data from satellite tags installed on animals released into the Sea of ​​Okhotsk on August 27, 2 killer whales Kharya and Forest moved 50 km from the place of release and are moving towards Sakhalin.

The trajectory of their movement is very similar to the one along which the youngest female killer whale Alexander from the second release.

Locations of the released captive orcas in Russia. 29 Aug 2019  Image Credit:  VNIRO

Killer whale Alexandra reached the Shantar Islands, where now there are other animals released from the Srednyaya Bay. It is 40 km from the three killer whales of Zoe, Tikhon and Gadget, which hunt in the region of Udskaya Bay.
As part of a joint monitoring and exchange of information between VNIRO and the Coalition “For the freedom of killer whales and whales”, Grigory Tsidulko, a member of the Council for Marine Mammals, said that during the study of bowhead whales in the Shantar Sea, he and other members of the Council: Svetlana Artemyeva and By Stanislav Zakharov, on August 20 a tagged killer whale was discovered, one of the ones released in the summer of 2019. The killer whale was [encountered] in the bay of Constantine.
At the time of the meeting, she was in a group with other seven killer whales and participated in the hunt. In front of observers, a family of killer whales caught two seals, which were divided between the group members and eaten.
Analysis of images taken during [observation] of killer whales [taken] allow us to define the tagged killer whale as “Vasilievna” – this is a female released into the Sea of ​​Okhotsk in the first installment on June 27.

Photo Credit: VNIRO

Belugas are located 25 km from Cape Perovsky and move in the opposite direction from killer whales towards Alexandra Bay.
VNIRO Press Service

All 10 killer whales and 12 of the captive belugas have been successfully released into the wild

In an unprecedented effort, the All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) orchestrated the release of ten young orcas and a dozen belugas who had been destined for a life in captivity having been illegally caught a year ago. Starting in July the orcas were trucked and barged in groups of two or three over hundreds of miles to be returned to their ocean home. (Background information can be found here). The belugas were moved in two groups of six.

Harju and Forest have been released to the wild in Russia. The orca on the right may have cream over sensitive or scarred tissue.       Photo Credit: VNIRO
The challenges were extreme for the crews as well as for the whales, from heat to nearly flood conditions. Tons of ice had to be obtained to keep the animals cool, and they had to be protected from the sun while they spent an average of 5 days in small containers.
Whale experts from around the world freely gave advice, and organizations such as Greenpeace readily participated when they had the opportunity.
Satellite tags were applied to most of the orcas and some of the belugas, which has allowed the scientists to follow at least one member in each group. The scientists plan to follow Harju and Forest for a few days and hopefully will have updates on the rest, but as of August 25th, the young Alexsandra was only about 15 miles (25 km) from the two other orcas she was released with. Orcas have been documented to swim 100 miles in a day, so she may have caught up with the others already if that was her intention.

Animals traveled 1800 km from the Srednaya Bay of Primorsky Krai to the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, which lasted 5 days. Despite the difficulties associated with the difficult traffic situation in Primorye, caused by long rains, high water and rising water levels in the Amur River, the [whales] were successfully delivered to the place of release.

Photo Credit: VNIRO

The two killer whales, a female named Harju and a male named Forest, were released together from a specially designed pen on a catamaran after they were massaged to restore their muscle tone.

 They circled for some time near the shore, and then together went into the northern part of the bay. Their behavior is currently being monitored by VNIRO scientists who will accompany animals in the first days of their stay in the wild.
After the killer whales moved away from the place of release to a safe distance, the preparation and release of beluga whales began.

Photo Credit: VNIRO

They were released alternately directly near the coast. First, the crane lowered the stretcher in which the animal was located on a soft mat on the shore. Here, scientists took measurements of belugas, took a blood, tissue and [breath] analysis, after which the crane lifted the stretcher and lowered it into the water near the shore to a depth of 1.5 m, where two trainers helped the animal to get out of the stretcher so as not to damage the fins.

Photo Credit: VNIRO

The belugas dove underwater and although it was impossible to see them, two of the larger whales have satellite tags and can be followed by scientists.
There are approximately 80 belugas left in the pens in Strednaya, all of which are scheduled for release before winter sets in.
The whales were captured and released in the Sea of Okhotsk, and held for a year in Srednaya Bay. Image credit: timesUK.co

Alexandra’s latest position (upper red dot) and the two others (green dot). Image Credit: VNIRO

The last 2 captive orcas are on their way to freedom in Russia, along with 6 belugas (updated)

UPDATE  23 August 2019:

Upon arrival at the port, the [whales] were given time to rest after a grueling road lasting more than 19 hours due to the difficult traffic situation in Primorye caused by long rains. In some sections of the route, the convoy was forced to move at a speed of 5-10 km per hour. Despite the long journey, veterinarians noted that killer whales and beluga whales carried it with minimal stress.
The fourth batch of animals includes 2 killer whales – an eight-year-old female named Kharya and a six-year-old male Forest. In Srednyaya Bay, they were always together in the same [enclosure]. The beluga includes 3 males and 3 females. The age of the animals is from 3 to 6 years. A balanced group was selected for the release, both from older and younger individuals.
On Monday, the ship will come to the village. Innokentyevka of the Nikolaev district, where the animals will be changed water and reloaded onto cars for further transportation to the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. Veterinarians, trainers and scientists of VNIRO will monitor the state of health throughout the river stage of the journey.
VNIRO Press Service

Alexandra and other released captives are reported to be thriving in the wild.

The whales were captured by companies that used loopholes in the law to obtain permits. Because the permits did not allow capture for the purpose of display, the Russian government ordered that all of the whales be returned to the wild.  For more background information, please see Saving the lonely orca calf, Alexandra: What are her options? (Videos).
There are few details to share at this point, and there is no mention of Greenpeace observers for this final killer whale release. However, the Russian fisheries service (VNIRO) reports that all the whales were given health inspections and are strong enough to withstand the long journey to freedom. They also maintain that all eight of the previously released whales have adapted back to life in the wild, in spite of the stressful travel. Two of the orcas don’t have functioning tags but the rest have been located.
The transportation of the whales has been streamlined, the first group endured a week in small containers, but if the weather holds this trip will take about four days.
This is the second group of belugas to be released, leaving approximately 80 awaiting return to the wild.

From VNIRO:

On August 22, the fourth stage of the joint operation of VNIRO [Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography] and specialists in the release of animals from Srednyaya Bay into the natural environment began. 2 killer whales and 6 belugas were loaded onto vehicles and, as a convoy, escorted by the traffic police, went to Khabarovsk.
These are the last killer whales, male and female, which were in the adaptation center. The condition of the animals, which have a long journey, was evaluated by the veterinarians as satisfactory. Behind them, as in previous times, professional supervision by veterinarians, VNIRO scientists and trainers will be conducted throughout the entire road.
Tomorrow afternoon, the convoy will arrive in Khabarovsk and the next stage of the journey, the animals will pass on the ship along the Amur River to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.

Capture and release sites. Image credit: timesUK.co

Freed captive orca Alexandra is thriving, as are 5 of the other young killer whales

Satellite tags on the orcas allow scientists to locate them.

According to the Russian Federal Research Institute Of  Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO),  little Alexandra is thriving. She’s hunting on her own in a biologically rich part of the Sea of Okhotsk, although she occasionally snacks on the buffet offered by fishing nets.

The youngest female Alexandra, released on July 16, has come a long way across the Sea of Okhotsk and is now in the North Okhotsk Sea subzone, about 600 km north of the Shantar Islands.
During her free life, she has eaten fish in fixed nets near Chkalov island, hunted near the Northern shores of Sakhalin, then spent more than a week in the open sea north of Sakhalin, prowling on the migration routes of Pacific salmon.
Then she, at high speed, overcoming more than 100 km per day, which indicates its good physical shape, crossed the Sea of Okhotsk from east to west, and now has come to the fishing areas in the North Okhotsk Sea Subzone.

Because she is hunting in areas of high fish abundance, the scientists believe she may have been misidentified as a mammal-eating type:

In general, the nature of Alexandra’s movements after her release indicates that she consistently checks the main areas of summer fishing in the Sea of Okhotsk. This behavior of Alexandra casts doubt on her belonging to the so-called “carnivorous” ecotype, previously determined on the basis of DNA marker analysis.

Please note, however, that she may be hunting for what she is accustomed to having been fed in captivity. Also, while seals and sea lions are present in the region they are difficult to catch so the possibility that she is genetically a mammal-eating type can’t be ruled out. What we may be witnessing here is an adaptation by an intelligent and sentient species.

 Press Service:

According to the latest data from satellite tags, three orcas – Zoya, Tikhon, and Gayka, released on August 6, are moving towards the Shantar Islands. Being close to the place of release for about a week, the animals actively moved, adapting to the natural habitat conditions, ate fish, which now go to spawn in large shoals in this area. Now the killer whales have left the Sakhalin Gulf and are approaching the Academy Bay.
Two large females from the first and second release groups are located at a distance of 30 km from each other in the Shantar Sea. These are the traditional habitats of wild killer whales. Their families were discovered by VNIRO scientists, who monitored these places from August 8 to 12.

At this time the locations and condition of the other two freed killer whales has not been released. They may have lost their tags or the tags may have failed so it is premature to assume that they have died. For background information, please read “3 more young orcas are on their way to freedom from captivity in Russia, bringing the total freed to 8“.
Sea of Okhotsk Photo Credit: https://vbpr.no/

3 Southern Resident orcas are reported dead, the rest are spending the summer away

The Southern Resident Killer Whale population has dropped to 73 as of July 1, 2019

“We are saddened to report that three adult killer whales (orca) are missing and presumed dead as of July 1, 2019. These whales are from the extremely endangered Southern Resident killer whale population, that historically frequent the Salish Sea almost daily in summer months. Due to the scarcity of suitable Chinook salmon prey, this population of whales now rarely visit the core waters of its designated Critical Habitat: Puget Sound, Georgia Strait, and the inland reach of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
The missing whales are J17, K25, and L84.
J 17 Photo Credit: Center for Whale Research

J17 is a 42-two-year-old J pod matriarch and mother of Tahlequah (J35), who carried her dead calf for an unprecedented 17 days last year. We reported that J17 was not in good body condition last winter, perhaps from stress. She is survived by two daughters and a son, J35, J53, and J44, respectively.

K 25 Photo Credit: Center for Whale Research

Also missing is 28-year-old, K25, an adult male in the prime of his life who was not in good body condition last winter. He is survived by two sisters and a brother, K20, K27, and K34, respectively.

 

L 84 Photo Credit: Center for Whale Research

And, lastly, 29-year-old male, L84, has been missing all summer in encounters conducted by our Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans colleagues along the west coast of Vancouver Island. L pod has not come into the Salish Sea yet this summer. L84 was the last of a matriline of eleven whales, ten of whom died previously.”

 

The trio of captive orcas have been released into the wild

Update 13 Aug 2019:  Freed orca Alexandra is thriving, as are 5 of the other young killer whales
Update 7 Aug 2019 – video has been released (please see below).

Photo Credit: Greenpeace

After five days in containers aboard trucks and a barge in weather that ranged from blazing heat to a downpour, Tikhon, Zoya, and Gadget were released into the Sea of Okhostsk. According to Greenpeace, once the three young killer whales were released they swam together for a couple of hours then headed out to sea.
Like the other released captive whales, satellite tags were bolted through their dorsal fins in order to keep track of them.
DNA samples were taken, which will help identify them – hopefully the tags are designed to fall off after a certain time period, and a good guess is that if any of the whales don’t make the adjustment to life in the wild and their body is found (big ifs) the authorities will know which orca it is. And who knows, the whales may one day have offspring of their own who can be traced through genetic samples.
Tikhon, Gadget and Zoya as they swim to freedom.
Photo Credit: Greenpeace

In case the hunters are allowed to capture orcas for the captivity trade in the future the genetic tests may even protect these from recapture. Because of the time they spent in captivity they are accustomed to people and so it is likely that they will be easily approached – or may even approach boats and docks as did Alexandra. It would be a travesty if they were recaptured in the future.
There should be an update soon on Alexandra and the other released whales (there are eight total). The Russian Federal Research Institute Of  Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) plans to visually monitor all eight of the freed orcas in the coming days.
And hopefully, in the near future the last two killer whales and 80 plus belugas will soon be freed.